Social scienceany discipline or branch of science that deals with human behaviour in its social and cultural aspects. The social sciences include cultural or social anthropologysociologysocial psychologypolitical scienceand economics. Also frequently included are social and economic geography and those areas of education that deal with the social contexts of learning and the relation of the school to the social order see also educational psychology.
Historiography is regarded by many as a social science, and certain areas of historical study are almost indistinguishable from work done in the social sciences. Most historians, however, consider history as one of the humanities.
It is generally best, in any case, to consider history as marginal to the humanities and social sciences, since its insights and techniques pervade both. The study of comparative law may also be regarded as a part of the social sciences, although it is ordinarily pursued in schools of law rather than in departments or schools containing most of the other social sciences. Beginning in the s, the term behavioral sciences was often applied to the disciplines designated as the social sciences.
Those who favoured this term did so in part because these disciplines were thus brought closer to some of the sciences, such as physical anthropology and physiological psychologywhich also deal with human behaviour.
Although, strictly speaking, the social sciences do not precede the 19th century—that is, as distinct and recognized disciplines of thought—one must go back farther in time for the origins of some of their fundamental ideas and objectives.
In the largest sense, the origins go all the way back to the ancient Greeks and their rationalist inquiries into human naturethe stateand morality. The heritage of both Greece and Rome is a powerful one in the history of social thought, as it is in other areas of Western society.
Very probably, apart from the initial Greek determination to study all things in the spirit of dispassionate and rational inquiry, there would be no social sciences today.
True, there have been long periods of time, as during the Western Middle Ageswhen the Greek rationalist temper was lacking. But the recovery of this temper, through texts of the great classical philosophers, is the very essence of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment in modern European history.
With the Enlightenment, in the 17th and 18th centuries, one may begin. The same impulses that led people in that age to explore Earththe stellar regions, and the nature of matter led them also to explore the institutions around them: state, economy, religionmoralityand, above all, human nature itself.
It was the fragmentation of medieval philosophy and theory, and, with this, the shattering of the medieval worldview that had lain deep in thought until about the 16th century, that was the immediate basis of the rise of the several strands of specialized thought that were to become in time the social sciences.
Medieval theologyespecially as it appears in St. But it is partly this close relation between medieval theology and ideas of the social sciences that accounts for the longer time it took these ideas—by comparison with the ideas of the physical sciences —to achieve what one would today call scientific character. From the time of the English philosopher Roger Bacon in the 13th century, there were at least some rudiments of physical science that were largely independent of medieval theology and philosophy.
Historians of physical science have no difficulty in tracing the continuation of this experimental tradition, primitive and irregular though it was by later standards, throughout the Middle Ages. Side by side with the kinds of experiment made notable by Bacon were impressive changes in technology through the medieval period and then, in striking degreein the Renaissance.
Efforts to improve agricultural productivity; the rising utilization of gunpowderwith consequent development of guns and the problems that they presented in ballistics; growing tradeleading to increased use of ships and improvements in the arts of navigationincluding use of telescopes ; and the whole range of such mechanical arts in the Middle Ages and Renaissance as architectureengineeringopticsand the construction of watches and clocks —all of this put a high premium on a pragmatic and operational understanding of at least the simpler principles of mechanicsphysicsastronomyand, in time, chemistry.
In short, by the time of Copernicus and Galileo in the 16th century, a fairly broad substratum of physical science existed, largely empirical but not without theoretical implications on which the edifice of modern physical science could be built. It is notable that the empirical foundations of physiology were being established in the studies of the human body being conducted in medieval schools of medicine and, as the career of Leonardo da Vinci so resplendently illustrates, among artists of the Renaissance, whose interest in accuracy and detail of painting and sculpture led to their careful studies of human anatomy.
Very different was the beginning of the social sciences. In the first place, the Roman Catholic Churchthroughout the Middle Ages and even into the Renaissance and Reformationwas much more attentive to what scholars wrote and thought about the human mind and human behaviour in society than it was toward what was being studied and written in the physical sciences. Nearly all the subjects and questions that would form the bases of the social sciences in later centuries were tightly woven into the fabric of medieval Scholasticismand it was not easy for even the boldest minds to break this fabric.
Then, when the hold of Scholasticism did begin to wane, two fresh influences, equally powerful, came on the scene to prevent anything comparable to the pragmatic and empirical foundations of the physical sciences from forming in the study of humanity and society. The first was the immense appeal of the Greek classics during the Renaissance, especially those of the philosophers Plato and Aristotle.China: Power and Prosperity -- Watch the full documentary
A great deal of social thought during the Renaissance was little more than gloss or commentary on the Greek classics. One sees this throughout the 15th and 16th centuries. Cartesianismas his philosophy was called, declared that the proper approach to understanding of the world, including humanity and society, was through a few simple, fundamental ideas of reality and, then, rigorous, almost geometrical deduction of more complex ideas and eventually of large, encompassing theories, from these simple ideas, all of which, Descartes insisted, were the stock of common sense—the mind that is common to all human beings at birth.
It would be hard to exaggerate the impact of Cartesianism on social and political and moral thought during the century and a half following publication of his Discourse on Method and his Meditations on First Philosophy Through the Enlightenment into the later 18th century, the spell of Cartesianism was cast on nearly all those who were concerned with the problems of human nature and human society.
It is not as though data were not available in the 17th and 18th centuries. The emergence of the nation-state carried with it ever growing bureaucracies concerned with gathering information, chiefly for taxationcensusand trade purposes, which might have been employed in much the same way that physical scientists employed their data.
The voluminous and widely published accounts of the great voyages that had begun in the 15th century, the records of soldiers, explorers, and missionaries who perforce had been brought into often long and close contact with indigenous and other non-Western peoples, provided still another great reservoir of data, all of which might have been utilized in scientific ways as such data were to be utilized a century or two later in the social sciences.
Such, however, was the continuing spell cast by the texts of the classics and by the strictly rationalistic, overwhelmingly deductive procedures of the Cartesians that, until the beginning of the 19th century, these and other empirical materials were used, if at all, solely for illustrative purposes in the writings of the social philosophers.Choosing the high school courses that will best prepare you for success in college can be a difficult process, and social studies, though an important subject for a strong college application, is easily overlooked, particularly if you aren't planning to enter a liberal arts program.
Many students are much more concerned about their mathscienceand foreign language requirements. Requirements for high school preparation in social studies vary significantly among different colleges and universities, and the term 'social studies' can mean something different to different schools.
War, technology, law, religion, and immigration all have a place within the category of "social studies. Government, Human Geography, and Psychology. Keep in mind, however, that colleges are free to define "social studies" as broadly or narrowly as they choose.
Most competitive colleges recommend at least two to three years of high school social studies, which generally includes history as well as courses in government or civics. Here are some specific recommendations for high school social studies coursework from several different institutions:.
The table below gives you a quick glimpse of typical social studies requirements for different types of colleges and universities. You can see from the selective colleges above that all schools require two or more social studies classes, and many require three. The reality is that your application will be strongest with four classes, for it's important to remember that colleges look more favorably upon applicants who have done more than meet the minimum requirements.
What you take will largely depend on what your school offers. A student who takes a course in U. In general, however, you should take the most challenging courses available to you. An IB curriculum will certainly impress the admissions officers, as will AP classes in history and government. If you have the option of taking classes through a local college, those dual-enrollment classes in history, politics, sociology, psychology, government, and other social sciences will also make a good impression and help demonstrate your college readiness.
College admissions officers are looking for students who have challenged themselves throughout high school, taking on advanced coursework in multiple subjects. Because social studies is an area in which most schools only require two or three years of study, you have an opportunity to present yourself as a well-rounded and dedicated student by taking additional courses.
This is particularly true if you are applying for a college program in history, civics, or any of the liberal arts. Share Flipboard Email. Eileen Cody is an experienced education program coordinator. Previously, she was an admissions counselor at Alfred University. Carleton Collegeone of the top liberal arts colleges in the country, requires three or more years of social science.
The college does not specify what courses it prefers students to take under the label of "social science.The authors report on the results of a survey of historians, which was part of a broader study of social and behavioral scientists undertaken by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Research Council, and the SSRC.
Landes and Tilly discuss the obstacles to and the scholarly possibilities for historical research conducted in a social science framework, and make recommendations on how that collaboration would benefit the broader field of history, as well as social science disciplines. The report on history is concerned mainly with those persons—inside, but also outside, the historical profession—who are engaged in historical work of a social science character, and with that part of historical study and training that falls within the scope of social science.
This focus has no invidious implications. Because history is not a unitary discipline, however, an inquiry of this kind assumes a special character. It cannot simply be addressed by the profession to the outside world. Instead it is addressed on behalf of one segment of the profession to both the discipline and the outside world.
We have tried to convey the state of that part of history that is or would be social science, and to offer recommendations that would promote and improve this kind of work.
As will be seen, many historians are inclined to greet such recommendations with doubt, scorn, anxiety, or hostility. We believe the promotion of social scientific history is in the interest of all historians. The changing character of historical evidence, the development of new techniques and concepts in related disciplines, the growing body of research by nonhistorians into historical problems—all these imply that even those historians who are not themselves working in social science have to learn to read it and use it, if only to teach their students.
What is more, most of the material facilities required to promote social scientific history are by their nature facilities for the entire discipline.
Better libraries, easier retrieval and dissemination of data, more generous arrangements for pre- and postdoctoral research, and similar improvements redound directly or indirectly to the benefit of all. In return, these gains are dependent on the cooperation of all, for students of history as social science will always need training in all aspects of the discipline. If anything, the growing sophistication of social scientific techniques makes it all the more important for practitioners of these techniques to know and appreciate the humanistic approach to historical knowledge.
We cannot afford to gain a world of numbers and models, only to lose our historical souls in the process. There is already a large body of literature on the nature and method of history. There have been published in recent years a number of essays on the relation of history to social science.
Many of these raise difficult epistemological questions about the nature of truth and evidence that we prefer to avoid. We have barely touched the classic questions of historical knowledge: To what degree can the historian ever free himself from the biases of his own time and place? Should he? Is there a special mode of historical knowledge based on empathy—the ability to put oneself into the skins of other people in other times and places? Are there laws, cycles, repetitions, irreversible trends in history?
We have not seriously examined the role of historical thinking and materials outside the discipline of history—an important question in a day when economists, sociologists, political scientists, and many others are attempting to work with historical evidence. Instead, we have concentrated our attention on history as a discipline and profession, with special attention to the social scientific sector, loosely defined. The kinds of questions we ask are: Who are the historians?
What do they do? How do they work?Sociologya social science that studies human societies, their interactions, and the processes that preserve and change them. It does this by examining the dynamics of constituent parts of societies such as institutions, communitiespopulations, and gender, racial, or age groups. Sociology also studies social status or stratification, social movementsand social changeas well as societal disorder in the form of crime, devianceand revolution.
Social life overwhelmingly regulates the behaviour of humanslargely because humans lack the instincts that guide most animal behaviour.
Humans therefore depend on social institutions and organizations to inform their decisions and actions.
Among the most basic organizational structures are economic, religious, educational, and political institutions, as well as more specialized institutions such as the family, the communitythe military, peer groups, clubs, and volunteer associations.
Sociology, as a generalizing social science, is surpassed in its breadth only by anthropology —a discipline that encompasses archaeologyphysical anthropologyand linguistics.
The broad nature of sociological inquiry causes it to overlap with other social sciences such as economicspolitical sciencepsychologygeographyeducationand law.
Sociologists also utilize some aspects of these other fields. Psychology and sociology, for instance, share an interest in the subfield of social psychologyalthough psychologists traditionally focus on individuals and their mental mechanisms.
Sociology devotes most of its attention to the collective aspects of human behaviourbecause sociologists place greater emphasis on the ways external groups influence the behaviour of individuals. The field of social anthropology has been historically quite close to sociology.
Recently, however, this distinction has faded, as social anthropologists have turned their interests toward the study of modern culture. Two other social sciences, political science and economics, developed largely from the practical interests of nations. Increasingly, both fields have recognized the utility of sociological concepts and methods.
A comparable synergy has also developed with respect to law, education, and religion and even in such contrasting fields as engineering and architecture. All of these fields can benefit from the study of institutions and social interaction. Though sociology draws on the Western tradition of rational inquiry established by the ancient Greeks, it is specifically the offspring of 18th- and 19th-century philosophy and has been viewed, along with economics and political science, as a reaction against speculative philosophy and folklore.
Consequently, sociology separated from moral philosophy to become a specialized discipline.
While he is not credited with the founding of the discipline of sociology, French philosopher Auguste Comte is recognized for having coined the term sociology. The founders of sociology spent decades searching for the proper direction of the new discipline.
They tried several highly divergent pathways, some driven by methods and contents borrowed from other sciences, others invented by the scholars themselves. To better view the various turns the discipline has taken, the development of sociology may be divided into four periods: the establishment of the discipline from the late 19th century until World War Iinterwar consolidation, explosive growth from toand the subsequent period of segmentation. Some of the earliest sociologists developed an approach based on Darwinian evolutionary theory.
In their attempts to establish a scientifically based academic discipline, a line of creative thinkers, including Herbert SpencerBenjamin Kidd, Lewis H.
MorganE. Tylorand L. Hobhousedeveloped analogies between human society and the biological organism. They introduced into sociological theory such biological concepts as variance, natural selectionand inheritance—asserting that these evolutionary factors resulted in the progress of societies from stages of savagery and barbarism to civilization by virtue of the survival of the fittest.
Some writers believed that these stages of society could be seen in the developmental stages of each individual. Although the popularity of social Darwinism waned in the 20th century, the ideas on competition and analogies from biological ecology were appropriated by the Chicago School of sociology a University of Chicago program focusing on urban studies, founded by Albion Small in to form the theory of human ecology that endures as a viable study approach.Since then, the social studies standards have been widely and successfully used as a framework for teachers, schools, districts, states, and other nations as a tool for curriculum alignment and development.
However, much has changed in the world and in education since these curriculum standards were published. This revision aims to provide a framework for teaching, learning, and assessment in social studies that includes a sharper articulation of curriculum objectives, and reflects greater consistency across the different sections of the document. It incorporates current research and suggestions for improvement from many experienced practitioners.
These revised standards reflect a desire to continue and build upon the expectations established in the original standards for effective social studies in the grades from pre-K through The approach originally taken in these curriculum standards has been well received in the United States and internationally; therefore, while the document has been revised and updated, it retains the same organization around major themes basic to social studies learning.
As in the original document, the framework moves beyond any single approach to teaching and learning and promotes much more than the transmission of knowledge alone.
These updated standards retain the central emphasis of the original document on supporting students to become active participants in the learning process. National Council for the Social Studies, the largest professional association for social studies educators in the world, defines social studies as:. The aim of social studies is the promotion of civic competence—the knowledge, intellectual processes, and democratic dispositions required of students to be active and engaged participants in public life.
Although civic competence is not the only responsibility of social studies nor is it exclusive to the field, it is more central to social studies than to any other subject area in schools. By making civic competence a central aim, NCSS has long recognized the importance of educating students who are committed to the ideas and values of democracy.
Young people who are knowledgeable, skillful, and committed to democracy are necessary to sustaining and improving our democratic way of life, and participating as members of a global community. The civic mission of social studies demands the inclusion of all students—addressing cultural, linguistic, and learning diversity that includes similarities and differences based on race, ethnicity, language, religion, gender, sexual orientation, exceptional learning needs, and other educationally and personally significant characteristics of learners.
Diversity among learners embodies the democratic goal of embracing pluralism to make social studies classrooms laboratories of democracy. In democratic classrooms and nations, deep understanding of civic issues—such as immigration, economic problems, and foreign policy—involves several disciplines. Social studies marshals the disciplines to this civic task in various forms. On the other hand, issues can also be taught in separate discipline-based classes e.
These standards are intended to be useful regardless of organizational or instructional approach for example, a problem-solving approach, an approach centered on controversial issues, a discipline-based approach, or some combination of approaches. Specific decisions about curriculum organization are best made at the local level.
To this end, the standards provide a framework for effective social studies within various curricular perspectives. What is the Purpose of the National Curriculum Standards?
The NCSS curriculum standards provide a framework for professional deliberation and planning about what should occur in a social studies program in grades pre-K through The framework provides ten themes that represent a way of organizing knowledge about the human experience in the world.
The learning expectations, at early, middle, and high school levels, describe purposes, knowledge, and intellectual processes that students should exhibit in student products both within and beyond classrooms as the result of the social studies curriculum. These curriculum standards represent a holistic lens through which to view disciplinary content standards and state standards, as well as other curriculum planning documents.The following is a partial list of social science journalsincluding history and area studies.
There are thousands of academic journals covering the social sciences in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. The list given here is far from exhaustive, and contains the most influential, currently publishing journals in each field. As a rule of thumb, each field should be represented by at most ten positions, chosen by their impact factors and other ratings.
There are many important academic magazines that are not true peer-reviewed journals. They are not listed here. For a list of periodicals in the physical, life, and applied sciences, see List of scientific journals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article. See also: List of African studies journals and List of scientific journals in Slavic studies.
See also: Category:Communication journals. For a more comprehensive list, see List of scholarly journals in economics. See also: List of educational psychology journals. For a more comprehensive list, see List of environmental social science journals. For a more comprehensive list, see List of history journals. For a more comprehensive list, see List of law journals. Main article: List of planning journals. See also: List of political science journals and List of international relations journals.
Main article: List of psychology journals. For a more comprehensive list, see List of sociology journals. For a more comprehensive list, see List of tourism journals. Main article: List of women's studies journals. This literature-related list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Social sciences. Outline History Index. Anthropology archaeology cultural linguistics social Economics microeconomics macroeconomics econometrics mathematical Geography human integrative History cultural auxiliary sciences economic human military political social Law jurisprudence legal history legal systems public law private law Political science international relations comparative theory public policy Psychology abnormal cognitive developmental personality social Sociology criminology demography internet rural urban.
Administration business public Anthrozoology Area studies Business studies Cognitive science Communication studies Community studies Cultural studies Development studies Education Environmental social science studies Food studies Gender studies Global studies History of technology Human ecology Information science International studies Linguistics Media studies Philosophy of science economics history psychology social science Planning land use regional urban Political ecology Political economy Public health Regional science Science and technology studies Science studies historical Quantum social science Social work Vegan studies.
List of social science journals.The Liberal Studies for the 21st Century Program at Florida State University builds an educational foundation that will enable FSU graduates to thrive intellectually and materially and to engage critically and effectively in their communities. In this way your Liberal Studies courses provide a comprehensive intellectual foundation and transformative educational experience.
Note to Instructors: Please find additional resources for developing Liberal Studies courses here. Read More. Students must complete a total of 6 credit hours in this area, of which at least 3 credits will be chosen from the statewide core course list below or courses that include these as a direct prerequisite. Additionally, at least 3 of the 6 total credits must be taken from within the Department of Mathematics courses with a course prefix of either MAC or MGF. This coursework must be completed in the first two years of undergraduate study, initiating in the first semester.
These courses are designed to help students become critical analysts of quantitative and logical claims. By the end of the course, students will:. Courses in this area meet the College-level Writing Competency. These courses are designed to help students become critical readers and clear, creative, and convincing communicators. Students must complete at least one Social Sciences course and one History course, i.
National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies: Introduction
These courses are designed to help students become critical analysts of theories and evidence about social forces and social experience and historical events and forces. Students must complete 3 credit hours in this area. These courses are designed to help students become thoughtful patrons of and participants in cultural practices.
Students who take a statewide core course from the Humanities and Cultural Practice area fulfill the statewide core requirement for the combined area and are free to take any Ethics course to meet FSU's Liberal Studies requirements. These courses are designed to help students become ethically engaged citizens and logical thinkers.
Students must complete 6 credit hours in this area, of which at least 3 credits will be chosen from the statewide core course list or courses that include these as a direct prerequisite. These courses are designed to help students become effective interpreters of scientific results and critical analysts of claims about the natural world.
To complete the 36 required Liberal Studies credit hours, students must complete a total of 6 credit hours of Liberal Studies electives drawn from the following areas, with certain limitations:.
Scholarship in Practice courses at the level do not count towards the thirty-six hours required for Liberal Studies General Education. If students meet 3 hours of the General Education Elective requirement with a Social Sciences, History, or Natural Sciences course and also take a 3-hour Scholarship in Practice course that is approved for that same General Education area, that course will count as a General Education elective due to the SIP designation.
For additional details, please see here. Skill in writing is not something that can be cultivated in a single pair of courses. Recognizing this, the State of Florida mandates that all undergraduates complete an additional six credit hours of coursework that emphasize college-level English language writing skills. These courses are designed to help students become creative, and convincing communicators. Scholarship in Practice SIP courses provide students with the opportunity to apply scholarship to produce an original analysis, project, or creative work that reflects a body of knowledge relevant to the course.
Students must complete one Scholarship in Practice course. The courses provide students with direct experience of what it means to be, for example, an historian, biologist, or filmmaker by engaging in a wide variety of experiences relevant to the discipline. Scholarship in Practice courses engage students in the authentic work of a particular field of study and also allow fields that do not typically have a liberal studies presence, such as engineering and business, to offer hands-on opportunities to non-majors.
These courses are designed to help students become critical thinkers, creative users of knowledge, and independent learners. Students must complete one FE. Examples of FE include faculty-supervised creative or artistic works; studying abroad; participating in faculty-supervised research; participating in a faculty-supervised internship or service work; or by completing Honors in the Major thesis credit. Culture may be described in its broadest sense as all socially patterned, symbolically mediated, learned behavior among humans.